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Crusades - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Battle between Hussites and crusaders; Jena Codex, 1. The Crusades were predominantly a series of religious wars undertaken by the Latin Church between the 1. Crusades were fought for many reasons: to capture Jerusalem, recapture Christian territory or defend Christians in non- Christian lands, resolve conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, gain political or territorial advantage, or to combat paganism and heresy. The First Crusade arose after a call to arms in a 1. Pope Urban II. Urban urged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks in Anatolia.

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Shop online for shoes, clothing, jewelry, dresses, makeup and more from top brands. Make returns in store or by mail. There are multiple definitions of the beginning of a pregnancy. Healthcare providers normally count the initiation of pregnancy from the first day of the woman's last.

Although one of Urban's stated aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the holy sites in the Holy Land that were under Muslim control, scholars disagree whether this was the primary motivation for Urban or for the majority of those who heeded his call. Urban's wider strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, which had been divided since their split in the East. Similarly, some of the hundreds of thousands of people who became crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the church were peasants hoping for Apotheosis at Jerusalem, or forgiveness from God for all their sins. Others, historians argue, participated to satisfy feudal obligations, gain glory and honour, or find opportunities for economic and political gain. Regardless of the motivation, the response to Urban's preaching by people of many different classes across Western Europe established the precedent for later crusades. Different perspectives of the actions carried out, at least nominally, under Papal authority during the crusades have polarised historians. To some their behaviour was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy and the crusades, in one case to the extent that the Pope excommunicated crusaders.

The People's Crusade included the Rhineland massacres: the murder of thousands of Jews. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade, rendering the reunification of Christendom impossible. The crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: they reopened the Mediterranean to commerce and travel (enabling Genoa and Venice to flourish); consolidated the collective identity of the Latin Church under papal leadership; and were a wellspring for accounts of heroism, chivalry and piety. These tales consequently galvanised medieval romance, philosophy and literature. The crusades also reinforced the connection between Western Christendom, feudalism, and militarism. Freeware Worms 1 Game Download read more. Terminology. Derived from the French croisade and Spanish cruzada, forms of the word Crusade had established themselves in English, French, and German by 1.

In addition to the motivations of the landed classes academic Norman Cohn has identified a . Sometimes the Eighth Crusade is considered two, the second of which is the Ninth Crusade. Historians do not agree on any single definition of a crusade. Constable (2. 00.

Levant, . For pluralists the only true crusades are those that were explicitly sanctioned by the Pope of their era. This broad definition subsumes attacks on paganism and heresy, such as the Albigensian Crusade in Southern France, the Northern Crusades in the Baltic, and Hussite Wars against the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia; and wars for political or territorial advantage, such as the Aragonese Crusade in Sicily, a crusade declared by Pope Innocent III against Markward of Anweiler in 1. This led to a rapid expansion of Arab power, the influence of which stretched from the northwest Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees.

For example, the Fatimidcaliphal- Hakim bi- Amr Allah destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre but his successor allowed the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it. In Northern Europe, the Germans used crusading as a method to expand Christianity and their territories at the expense of the non- Christian Slavs. In 1. 05. 4, centuries of attempts by the Latin Church to assert supremacy over the Patriarchs of the Eastern Empire led to a permanent division in the Christian church called the East. Beginning around 1.

The Aspen Daily News reports that attorneys filed a.. Colorado communities that rely on water from dozens of glaciers and glacier features in Rocky Mountain National Park are concerned because the glaciers are shrinking as temperatures climb and winter snowfall becomes more..

A Douglas County sheriff's detective who was shot in the chest after arriving at a home to check on a suicidal man earlier this month is awake and communicating with his family. A Douglas County sheriff's detective who was shot in the chest after arriving at a home to check on a suicidal man earlier this month is awake and communicating with his family.

The Bureau of Land Management is reorganizing and changing its field office in Grand Junction from the northwest Colorado district to the southwest district. The Bureau of Land Management is reorganizing and changing its field office in Grand Junction from the northwest Colorado district to the southwest district. Colorado communities that rely on water from dozens of glaciers and glacier features in Rocky Mountain National Park are concerned because the glaciers are shrinking as temperatures climb and winter snowfall.. Colorado communities that rely on water from dozens of glaciers and glacier features in Rocky Mountain National Park are concerned because the glaciers are shrinking as temperatures climb and winter snowfall becomes more.. Colorado Secretary of State Wayne Williams is investigating reports that votes have been cast for people months or years after their deaths. Colorado Secretary of State Wayne Williams is investigating reports that votes have been cast for people months or years after their deaths.

A detective who was shot in the chest during a confrontation with a suspect is awake and communicating with family. A detective who was shot in the chest during a confrontation with a suspect is awake and communicating with family. Public health agencies in southern Colorado are issuing warnings while they investigate an outbreak of infections linked to raw milk. Public health agencies in southern Colorado are issuing warnings while they investigate an outbreak of infections linked to raw milk. The Navajo Nation is seeking further investigation into the potential environmental fallout of hydraulic fracturing as it looks to update its energy policies.

The Navajo Nation is seeking further investigation into the potential environmental fallout of hydraulic fracturing as it looks to update its energy policies. Tommie Smith and John Carlos, the American sprinters whose raised- fist salutes at the 1. Olympics are an ageless sign of race- inspired protest, will join the U. S. Olympic team at the White House next week for its.. Tommie Smith and John Carlos, the American sprinters whose raised- fist salutes at the 1. Olympics are an ageless sign of race- inspired protest, will join the U.

S. Olympic team at the White House next week for its meeting.. Authorities are investigating the apparent killing of an inmate at the (LIE'- muhn) Limon Correctional Facility. Authorities are investigating the apparent killing of an inmate at the Limon (LIE'- muhn) Correctional Facility. Posted: Monday, September 2. AM EDT2. 01. 6- 0.

GMTUpdated: Monday, September 2. AM EDT2. 01. 6- 0. GMTAfter months of tangling from afar, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump will confront each other face- to- face for the first time in Monday night's presidential debate, laying out for voters their vastly different.. After months of tangling from afar, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump will confront each other face- to- face for the first time in Monday night's presidential debate, laying out for voters their vastly different visions..

The U. S. Coast Guard says one of two Connecticut boaters who had been missing for a week has been found alive, drifting on an inflatable life raft off the coast of Massachusetts. The U. S. Coast Guard says one of two Connecticut boaters missing for a week has been found alive, drifting on an inflatable life raft off the coast of Massachusetts.

Posted: Monday, September 2. AM EDT2. 01. 6- 0.

GMTUpdated: Monday, September 2. AM EDT2. 01. 6- 0. GMTCharlotte lifted its midnight curfew, signaling movement toward normalcy after a state of emergency was imposed after the shooting death of a black man by police last week that brought National Guard troops and..